Bhoja Prabandha of Ballala Deva – Sanskrit Text with Hindi & English Translation

Bhojaprabandha (narrative of Bhoja), written by Ballala Deva, is the story of Bhoja, King of Malwa during the 11th Century A.D. This book contains many interesting legends about great poets like Kalidasa, Bhavabhuti and Bana.

King Bhoja was so deeply dedicated to the cause of literature that writing of poetry had become a mass movement during his tenure as a king. Only those who had poetic skills were permitted to reside inthe city “Dhara” during Bhoja’s tenure as the king. This was his order, “विप्रोऽपि यो भवेन्मूर्खः स पुराद्बहिरस्तु मे। कुम्भकारोऽपि यो विद्वान् स तिष्ठतु पुरे मम॥” “Let not a stupid person stay in my city even if he is brahmin; Let a learned person stay in my city, even if one is a potter.”

Ballala Deva, it seems, was interested not so much in history as in heroics. In his attempt to magnify Bhoja as a patron of art and letters, Ballala has ignored historical facts. The poets, Kalidasa, Bhavabhuti and Bana, who, he said adorned Bhoja-s court, belonged to centuries much before Bhoja.

Bala-Bhojaprabandha in Hindi by Pt Sunderlal Sharma Dvivedi

This is an adapted version of Ballaladeva’s Bhoja Prabandha in Hindi. The author has retained all the interesting anecdots from the original Bhojaprabandha.

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Bhojaprabandha – Sanskrit text with Hindi translation by Jagadishlal Shastri
Bhojaprabandha – Sanskrit text with Hindi translation by SS Tripathi
Bhojaprabandha with English Translation by Saradaprosad Vidyabhushan
Bhojprabandha Sanskrit text – Pansikar – NSP 1932
Bal Bhojaprabandh – Hindi – Pt Sunderlal Sharma Dvivedi

Vyavaharikam Samskritam in 3 parts (Sanskrit Tutorial)

Vyavaharikam Samskritam in 3 parts by Pramodvardhana Kaundinyayana Mimamsacharya of Nepal is intented to teach Sanskrit to the beginners in Sanskrit language. This series covers Sanskrit alphabets, declensions, subhashitas, stories, coversations, poems, sandhi, verb forms, samasas, pratyayas, etc.

I am grateful to Ujjwol Lamichhane for kindly sending the pdf files of these books to me and for encouraging me to post them on this blog.

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Vyavaharikam Samskritam Part 1 to 3

Swapnavasavadatta of Bhasa – Skt text with English translation & notes

Sanskrit Text with English translation and notes of Swapnavasavadatta (The dream of Vasavadatta) of Bhasa (3rd Century BCE) by A.B. Gajendragadkar.

The plot of Svapnavasavadatta is drawn from the romantic narratives about the Vatsa king Udayana and Vasavadatta, the daughter of Pradyota, the ruler of Avanti, which were current in the poet’s time and which seem to have captivated popular imagination. The main theme of the drama is the sorrow of Udayana for his queen Vasavadatta, believed by him to have perished in a conflagration, which was actually a rumour spread by Yaugandharayana, a minister of Udayana to compel his king to marry Padmavati, the daughater of the king of Magadha. It forms, in context, a continuation of his another drama, Pratijnayaugandharayana.

Svapnavasavadatta is based on the brihatakatha of gunadhya and is referred to in the mahabharata. Bhasa stands preeminent for the boldness of his conception, insight into character and for his homely sparking style. He has written about thirteen plays of which the svapna-vasavadatta is reckoned as a masterpiece both in ancient indian and modern criticism.

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Vikramorvasiyam of Kalidasa Sanskrit Text & English Translation

Vikramorvasiya (Urvasi Won Through Valor) is based on the old legend of the love of the mortal Pururavaas for the heavenly damsel Urvasi. The legend occurs in embryonic form in a hymn of the Rig Veda and in a much amplified version in the Shatapathabrahmana. It tells the story of mortal King Pururavas and celestial nymph Urvashi who fall in love. As an immortal, she has to return to the heavens, where an unfortunate accident causes her to be sent back to the earth as a mortal with the curse that she will die (and thus return to heaven) the moment her lover lays his eyes on the child which she will bear him. After a series of mishaps, including Urvashi’s temporary transformation into a vine, the curse is lifted, and the lovers are allowed to remain together on the earth.

Vikramorvasiyam is the second of the three dramas attributed to Kalidasa, the other two being Abhijnanasakuntalam and Malavikagnimitram. The language employed in Vikramorvasiyam displays all the elegance and the beauties of Kalidasa’s style.

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The Vikramorvasiyam, a drama in 5 acts (Sanskrit Text with English Notes by SP Pandit)

Vikramorvasi: an Indian drama (English Translation by EB Cowell

Chanakya Sutrani – Skt Text with Hindi Translation & Commentary

Next to the heros of the Puranas, no name is more familiar to Indians than that of Chanakya (4th century BCE) or as he is otherwise known, Kautilya or Visnugupta. Throughout the whole of India, nitis or wise sayings attributed to him, are even now taught to students. The very fact that this universal adoration is paid to his memory, shows that Kautilya was in his own days regarded as a master, whose worldly wisdom and foresight gained for him the veneration of his comtemporaries.

This book is a Hindi Translation and commentary on aphorisms of Chanakya by Sri Ramavatar Vidyabhaskar. There are 571 aphorisms in six chapters. Chanakya, through his aphorisms,

Chanakya begins the text with a prayer to Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth. Usually Sanskrit texts begin with “Mangalacharanam” – a prayer to Guru, Ganesa or ones Ishta Devata for the auspicious completion of the book. We can see that Chanakya does not conform to this tradition. The first sutra, is perhaps, an explanation why he directed his prayer to Lakshmi. It says, “Wealth is the root cause of Dharma (Righteousness). The last sutra says, “Control of senses is the cause for success in all matters”. Thus, through his aphorisms, Chanakya teaches that a country can progress only imbibing values such as righteousness and self-control and by acquisition of wealth through good governance.

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Laghu Paniniyam of A. R. Rajaraja Varma

“Laghu Paniniyam”  is a brief introduction to classical Sanskrit grammar, on the lines of Panini. In this text the more important sutras of Ashtadhyayi are so arranged as to bring together the relevant sutras bearing on a particular topic. The author exaplainsin his preface, what motivated him to write this book – “it has always struck me, if it were possible to prepare an elementary grammar, in Sanskrit itself, on the basis of Panini’s unmatched aphorisms, simplifying his principles and interpreting them in accordance with modern tendencies so as to form an introduction to Panini, and to the ordinary classical literature generally, the attempt would be worth-making.”

The author, A R Rajaraja Varma (1863 -1918), is well known as Kerala Panini (the Panini of Kerala). He was given this title considering his contributions for systematising the grammar of Malayalam language.

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Sanskrit Sanskrit Dictionaries – Sabdakalpadruma & Vachaspatyam

Sanskrit Dictionaries – General Introduction

The history of Sanskrit dictionary is, perhaps, older than that of the Sanskrit Grammar. It got started with Vedic Concordance named ‘Nighantu’. In reality, instead of being a dictionary, Nighantu is more or less a word. During later period, various dictionaries were compiled but, unfortunately, we have lost their original scripts.

Amara Simha’s ‘Amarakosa’ has been considered to be the oldest and most popular compilation. It is also known as Namalinganusasana. in later period, Halayudha-kosa, Vaijayanti-kosa, Mankha-kosa, Nama-mala and Anekartha-samgraha etc. names are worth mentioning.

Two voluminous dictionaries compiled in the 19th century are – Vacaspatyam and Sabdakalpadruma, which stand apart their modern style and technique, Both the volumes are replete with the quotes from the contemporary literature to explain the words convincingly. These, thus may be called a bridge between the dictionary and the encyclopedia.

In the modern times, Sanskrit English Dictionary of H.H. Wilsonm, W. Monier and Sanskrit Worterbuch of Oto Bohtlingk’s and Sanskrit English Dictionary by Vamana Sivarama Apte are the excellent works in this tradition.

Sabda Kalpadruma: A Comprehensive Sanskrit Dictionary in 5 volumes

Sabda Kalpadruma is a well known Sanskrit lexicon compiled by a few Bengali scholars at the instance of Raja Radhakanta Deb of Bengal. In this book, the words have been analyzed into their base-forms and suffixes, their genders determined and their Sanskrit synonyms noted.

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Volume 1 Volume 2 Volume 3 Volume 4 Volume 5

Vacaspatyam: A Comprehensive Sanskrit Dictionaryin 6 volumes

Vacaspatyam is a Sanskrit Lexicon, of 5442 pages, by Pandit Taranatha Tarkavacaspati, Calcutta. It is very full up to the end of the letter Pa (page 4550), whilst the rest of the alphabet is squeezed into 900 pages! It is said that the Bengal Govt, which largely subsidized the undertaking, ordered it to be curtailed. If that is so, it did a very unwise thing! (Col. GA Jacob in “A Handful Of Popular Maxims Current In Sanskrit Literature”)

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Volume 1 Volume 2 Volume 3 Volume 4 Volume 5 Volume 6

Vritta Ratnakara of Kedara Bhatta with Sanskrit & Hindi Commentaries – Nrisimhadeva Sastri

Vritta Ratnakara of Kedara Bhatta (14th Century CE) is one of the most popular texts on Sanskrit prosody. Though there are many books on Sanskrit prosody by eminent authors like Kalidasa, Kshemendra, etc, Vritta Ratankara continues to be an essential text for Sanskrit students.

A speciality of this work is that the definition and illustration of a meter is given in one and the same verse. The verse defining a particular metre is composed in that particular meter itself. This is very helpful for a student of Sanskrit prosody.

Another speciality of this work is that it is very brief – there are merely 136 verses. The author has covered all the prominent metres of Sanskrit literature in these verses.

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The Bible in Sanskrit

The Bible is available in almost all languages in the world. But, a copy of it in Sanskrit is a rarity. It is unknown to many that the Bible was translated into Sanskrit language by Christian Missionaries in by the end of 19th century CE. This speaks volumes about their dedication to the task of spreading Christianity in India. By the end of the 19th century, Sanskrit had been reduced to the status of a classical language handled only by the intelligentsia. Perhaps to propagate Christianity among the Hindu intelligentsia, the missionaries would have translated the Bible into Sanskrit, the sacred language of Hindus.

The Sanskrit version of the Old Testament was printed in four parts in 1848 and the New Testament in 1886 in Calcutta. Both these publications do not have English translations since these translations were obviously meant for Sanskrit scholars.

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Old Testament of the Bible (in four parts)
Part 1 Part 2
Part 3 Part 4

Mathew’s Gospel Sanskrit Text with English Translation is available at sanskritweb

Sarva-darsana-sangraha of Madhavacharya

In Sarva-darsana-sangraha the author successively passes in review the sixteen philosophical systems current in India in 14th century CE, and gives what appeared to him to be their most important tenets, and the principal arguments by which their followers endeavoured to maintain them. In the course of his sketches, he frequently explains at some length obscure details in the different systems.

The systems are arranged from the Advaita-point of view. They form a gradually ascending scale-the first, the Charvaka and Buddha, being the lowest as the farthest removed from Advaita, and the last, Sankhya and Yoga being the highest as approaching most nearly to it.

The author, Madhavacharya or Madhava Vidyaranya (not to be confused with Madhvacharya, propounder of Dwaita philosophy) was an exponent of the Advaita school of philosophy in Hinduism. He is said to be the brother of Sayanacharya who wrote a commentary on the four Vedas.

The present translation was originally published serially in the Banaras Pandit between 1874 and 1878 and was carefully revised and republished in book form later and a second edition was printed in 1894.

Table of Contents

Preface
A Not on Romanization
The Sarva-darsana-sangraha
The Prologue
The Charvaka System (E. B. C.)
The Buddha System (A. E. G.)
The A rhata or Jaina System (E. B. C.)
The Ramanuja System (A. E. G.)
The Purna-prajna System (A. E. G.)
The Nakulisa-Pasupata System (A. E. G.)
The Saiva System (E. B. C.)
The Pratyabhijna or Recognitive System (A. E. G.)
The Resesvara or Mercurial System (A. E. G.)
The Vaiseshika or Anulukya System (E. B. C.)
The Akshapada or Nyaya System (E. B. C.)
The Jaiminy System (E. B. C.)
The Paniniya System (E. B. C.)
The Sankhy System (E. B. C.)
The Patanjala or Yoga System (E. B. C.)
The Vedanta or System
APPENDIX : On the Upadhi (E. B. C.)

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