Speak Sanskrit the Easy Way

“Speak Sanskrit the Easy Way”, published by Sri Aurobindo Ashram, Pondicherry, is an ideal primer for those who wish to learn to speak Sanskrit. This book is meant for those students who are at least familiar with the Devanagari script.

The method introduced here for learning Sanskrit is natural, easy and effective. Extensive use of tables helps to simplify the grammatical complexities in a structural and scientific way. For all words, meanings are provided in English.

For more online books, audio and video that will help you to learn Sanskrit, visit http://motherandsriaurobindo.in/sanskrit/_Text Books With Audio/Speak Sanskrit/-00_Contents.htm

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Raghava Yadaviyam with English Translation

Raghava-yadaviyam by Venkatadhvari (17th cent.) is an “anuloma-viloma kavya” that narrates the story of Rama. But the Shlokas read in the reverse relate an adventure of Shri Krishna.

Given below is an extract on “Raghava Yadaviyam” from “Pride of India” published by Samskrita Bharati, Bangalore.

There is a recent work (17th century AD) of the name Raghava Yadaviyam. The name is intriguing. Raghava refers to the one born in Raghu-kula viz. Rama the protagonist of the epic Ramayana. Yadava refers to the one born in the Yadu-kula, Krishna, the protagonist of the other epic Mahabharata.

The 30 slokas in the work tell the story of Rama, obviously very briefly, justifying the first part of the name. Why the second part of the name – Yadaviyam? These slokas, if read in the reverse, letter by letter, narrate an episode from the life of Lord Krishna – of bringing parijata tree from the heavens to the earth.

This interesting though brief work

– shows that verbal ingenuity of the composer Arasanpalai Venkitacharya (also known as Venkatadhvari) and also

– proves the encryption capability of the Sanskrit language.

Here is a random sloka from the text.

वन्देऽहं देवं तं श्रीतं रन्तारं कालं भासा यः ।
रामो रामाधीराप्यागो लीलामारायोध्ये वासे ॥

“I pay my obeisance to Lord Shri Rama, who with his heart pining for Sita, travelled across the Sahyadri Hills and returned to Ayodhya after killing Ravana and sported with his consort, Sita, in Ayodhya for a long time.”

In reverse

सेवाध्येयो रामालाली गोप्याराधी मारामोरा ।
यस्साभालंकारं तारं तं श्रीतं वन्देहं देवं ॥

“I bow to Lord Shri Krishna, whose chest is the sporting resort of Shri Lakshmi;who is fit to be contemplated through penance and sacrifice, who fondles Rukmani and his other consorts and who is worshipped by the gopis, and who is decked with jewels radiating splendour.”

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Upanishad Vakya Kosa – A Concordance of the Principal Upanishads & Bhagavadgita

One of the major difficulties in appreciating the various commentaries on Vedanta Sutras and other ancient Indian philosophical texts is that numerous citations from the Upanishads and the Bhagavadgita are found in them without any exact authenticated reference to the original source. With a view to overcoming this difficulty by providing relevant cross-references, as also to furnishing useful material to students of philology and lexicography, Col. G. A. Jacob has compiled this book. This volume owes its existence to a pressing sense of need.

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Nyayavali – Sanskrit Maxims & Proverbs – With English Translation and Notes

A collection of popular maxims (nyayas) and proverbs of Sanskrit literature with English translation and notes.”Nyaya” in Sanskrit is a popular maxim (proverbial saying) that illustrates a general truth, fundamenatl principle or rule of conduct.

Apart from giving an insight into the life and beliefs of ancient people these maxims are current and useful in scholarly discussions and academic gatherings among Sanskritists. These Nyayas are still valuable and relevant in judicial circles in the interpretations of law and jurisprudence in modern India. Sanskrit poets have enriched and embellished Sanskrit language by various devices among which the maxims or Nyayas occupy an important place.

An added feature of this ebook is an exhaustive table of content with hyperlinks which makes it possible to navigate easily within the ebook.


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Amara Kosa – the Sanskrit Thesaurus with notes & index

Amarakosa, Amarasinha’s Sanskrit thesaurus well-known to every Sanskrit student, is the oldest work of the kind now extant. According to tradition Amarasimha was one of the nine distinguished men (nava ratna) of the court of King Vikramaditya (4th Century CE).

The Amarakosha consists of verses that can be easily memorized. It is divided into three khandas or chapters. The first, svargadi-khanda (“heaven and others”) has words pertaining to gods and heavens. The second, bhuvargadi-khanda (“earth and others”) deals with words about earth, towns, animals and humans. The third, samanyadi-khanda (“common”) has words related to grammar and other miscellaneous words.

It is of great interest to note that, though the production of a Buddhist, it has been universally accepted as an authority by the Brahmans and the Jainas alike. The fact that it has been commented upon by Buddhists like Subhutichandra, by Jainas like Asadharapandita and Nachiraja,and by Brahmans like Kshirasvamin, Mallinatha and Appayyadikshita testifies to its usefulness to every class of Sanskrit students. It is a well-known fact that translations of the Amarakosha into Chinese and Thibetan have been recently discovered.

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Mudrarakshasa of Visakhadatta – Sanskrit Drama with English translation

The Mudrarakshasa (“Signet Ring of the Rakshasa,the chief minister of the last Nanda king”), a historical play in Sanskrit by Vishakhadatta (4th century CE) narrates the ascent of the king Chandragupta Maurya to power in Northern India with the aid of Chanakya, his Guru and chief minister.

Storyline: Chanakya, minister of the king Nanda (Dhana Nanda), allies himself with Chandragupta in the latter’s plans for usurpation and is forced out by the king. Chanakya’s pact with king Parvata from the Northwest ensures his victory over Nanda.

Parvata and Chandragupta divide up the old possessions of Nanda. Next, Parvata dies poisoned by a youth and his son Malayaketu succeeds him. Malayaketu, together with Rakshasa, the last minister of Nanda, demands the inheritance of all the old territories of the Nanda.

The drama begins when Malayaketu and his allies (the kings of Persia, Sind and Kashmir) are poised to attack Pataliputra (present day Patna), the capital of Chandragupta.

The outcome arrives when Chanakya, by the use of guile, manages to attract Rakshasa to the Maurya side, thus undoing the coalition of Malayaketu.

The historical authenticity of the Mudrarakshasa is somewhat supported by the description of this period of history in Classical Hellenistic sources: the violent rule of the Nanda, the usurpation of Chandragupta, the formation of the Maurya Empire, and the various battles with the kingdoms of the Northwest resulting from the conquests of Alexander the Great.

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Downlaod Mudrarakshasa of Visakhadatta with English translation
Download Mudrarakshasa Hindi translation by Bharatendu Harishchandra

Brihad Dhatu Rupavali

The students of Sanskrit often hesitate to use verbal forms while speaking or writing and prefer to use past and potential participles instead. This is because they are not sure whether a certain verbal form they are going to use is correct.

Brihad Dhatu Rupavali by T. R. Krishnamacharya which gives all verbal forms of almost all roots in the Dhatupatha in addition to the participles of the above kind, would surely be very useful to the Sanskrit students. As a book of reference, Brihad Dhatu Rupavali is almost indispensable even to Sanskrit scholars.


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Sabda Manjari

Knowledge of declensions of nouns and verbs is a must for those who wish to master Sanskrit. This book, authored by K.L.V. Sastri & Pandit L. Anantharam Sastri, is a collection of sabda rupas (declensions of nouns) and has been a prescribed text book in many parts of India for decades.

What is Declension in Sanskrit (from Wikipedia)

Declension has been analyzed extensively in Sanskrit, where it is known as karaka (similar to cases in English) . Seven varieties are defined by Panini in terms of their semantic roles:

1. agent (karta, often in subject position, performing independently)
2. patient (karman, often in objective position)
3. means (karana, instrumental)
4. recipient (sampradaana, similar to dative)
5. source (apaadaana, similar, but not the same, as ablative)
6. possessor (sambandha, genitive)
7. locus (adhikarana, locative or goal)

In addition, another declension exists, known as the sambodhana (vocative). It is used to indicate the object being addressed. For example: he Rama (O Rama).

For example, consider the following sentence:
vriksaat parnam bhumau patati
[from] the tree a leaf [on] the ground falls
“a leaf falls from the tree on (onto) the ground”

Here leaf is the agent, tree is the source, and ground is the locus, the corresponding declensions are reflected in the case endings.

source of E-text: http://www.archive.org/details/texts

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Niti-Sara – Collection of Subhashitas – Sanskrit English

Niti-Sara is a collection of Subhashitas from Sanskrit literature.

The Subhashitas are Sanskrit verses that are full of wit and wisdom. Neeti or Niti is art of doing the right action at right time and place. This booklet is an English translation of a small booklet in Malayalam which has been in use in Kerala for decades.

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Yaksha Prasna Sanskrit English

Yaksha Prasna is an episode taken from Mahabharata. It is a dialogue between Yudhishthira and Yama, the lord of Death who disguises as a Yaksha. In this Yudhishthira gives amazing and enlightening answers to very difficult questions asked by Yama.

During the time when the Pandavas were living in the forest, a deer took away the stick used to make fire from the sage’s home in the forest in its antlers. The saint tried to recover it but could not. He then requested the Pandavas (sons of Pandu) to trace the deer by its hoof marks and recover it. The Pandavas followed the hoof marks of the deer throughout the day and reached deep in the forest. Dharma Puthra the eldest of the Pandavas became very tired and wanted to drink some water before carrying on the chase any further. Sahadeva the youngest brother volunteered to bring the water. He spotted a lake near by. The lake was bare of any living beings except a crane. When Sahadeva tried to drink water from the lake, the crane spoke to him, Oh Sahadeva, the water of this lake is poisonous, if you drink it without answering my questions. Sahadeva did not bother and drank the water from the lake and died. After some time Nakula came in search. And was surprised at seeing the dead Sahadeva. He too decided to drink water and was warned by the crane and he too died on drinking the water. The same thing happened to Arjuna and Bheema. Seeing that all his four brothers are missing, Dharma Puthra came in search. Since he was very thirsty, he too tried to drink the water from the lake. But when the crane warned him, he decided to answer the questions of the crane. Before asking questions, the crane revealed himself as a Yaksha. All the questions asked by the Yaksha were answered by Dharma Puthra to the Yaksha’s satisfaction. Then the Yaksha gave a boon to Dharma Puthra to bring back alive one of his dead brothers. Dharma wanted, Nakula to be made alive. The surprised Yaksha asked him, Oh king, why did you choose Nakula, when you could have chosen Bheema and Arjuna? Dharma Puthra replied, I am alive and so my mother Kunthi has one son. I wanted my other mother Madhri also to have a son alive, The Yaksha was very much pleased and gave life back to all the Pandavas. Given below are the pointed questions asked by the Yaksha and the pithy and very direct replies given by Dharma Puthra. These are a store house of knowledge and termed as Yaksha Prasna (Questions of Yaksha).

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